The purpose of this study is to analyze in vitro changes in ion release and biological properties of Endocem-MTA (Maruchi, Wonju, Korea) and NeoMTA-Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL, USA) exposed to acidic or neutral environment on human dental periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs).
Cell viability and wound healing assays were performed using eluates of each material. Cell death and changes in phenotype induced by the set endodontic sealer eluates were evaluated through flow cytometry. To evaluate cell attachment to the different materials, hPDLSCs were directly seeded onto the material surfaces and analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The chemical composition of the materials was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), and ion release was evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and a Bonferroni or Tukey post-test (α < 0.05).
The MTT assay revealed non-cytotoxic effects of NeoMTA-Plus and Endocem-MTA at pH 5.2 and 7.4. However, there were minor differences compared with the control, especially at pH 5.2, where both materials were associated with significantly greater cell viability (P < 0.05). In both environments, the materials stimulated hPDLSCs to migrate. hPDLSCs were attached to the bioactive cements, with multiple prolongations proliferated on the surface of the samples. Moreover, there were no changes to cell phenotype or apoptosis/necrosis rates, indicating that the acidic environment did not induce cell death. Prismatic crystalline structures were seen on the surface of the cements exposed to butyric acid and EDX analysis identified a marked peak of Ca2+ from NeoMTA-Plus and Endocem-MTA in acidic and physiological environments.
An acidic environment favoured the release of Ca2+ ions from both bioactive cements, and the cytotoxicity of these bioactive cements was low in both environments studied.