The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of powder‐to‐gel ratio (0.19 g powder to 50 μL of gel, thick MTA Flow, and 0.06 g powder to 50 μL of gel, fluid MTA Flow) on biocompatibility of MTA Flow (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, UT, USA, lot: 2015122901) and compare it with Biodentine (Septodont Inc., Saint‐Maur‐des‐Fossés, France, lot: B18542A).
The materials were manipulated and inserted into polyethylene tubes for implantation in twenty rats. After 7, 15, 30 and 60 days, the specimens were removed and embedded in paraffin. Haematoxylin and eosin sections were used to count the number of inflammatory cells (IC) and fibroblasts mm−2 (Fb). In the Masson’s trichrome‐stained sections, the fibrous capsule thickness was measured; picrosirius red‐stained sections were used for birefringent collagen quantification. The data were submitted to two‐way ANOVA and Tukey test (P ≤ 0.05).
A significantly lower number of IC and consequently higher number of Fb were observed in the capsules adjacent to thick MTA Flow at all periods, in comparison with other materials (P ≤ 0.05). At 60 days, the quantity of birefringent collagen was significantly greater in the tissue in contact with thick MTA Flow, when compared with fluid MTA Flow and Biodentine.
Although thick MTA Flow induced a less intense inflammatory response, all evaluated materials are biocompatible because they allowed regression of this process after 60 days.