Biocompatibility and mineralized nodule formation of Neo MTA Plus and an experimental tricalcium silicate cement containing tantalum oxide

ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the biocompatibility and mineralized nodule formation of an experimental tricalcium silicate cement with tantalum oxide (TSC/T2aO5) as radiopacifier, Neo MTA Plus (Avalon Biomed Inc., Bradenton, FL, USA) and MTA (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) on human osteoblast-like cells (Saos-2).

METHODS:

Biocompatibility was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and neutral red (NR) assays, after exposure of Saos-2 to cement extracts at 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 4 and 1 : 8 dilutions for 24 h. Bioactivity was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and calcium deposits were detected with alizarin red stain-ing (ARS). Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and Bonferroni or Tukey post-test (a = 0.05).

RESULTS:

The MTT assay revealed lower cytotoxicity for NEO and MTA (P < 0.05), and higher for TSC/Ta2O5 at 1 : 1 and 1 : 2 dilutions when compared to serum-free medium – control (P > 0.05). At 1 : 4 dilution, the TSC/Ta2O5 cytotoxicity was similar to the control (P > 0.05). At 1 : 8 dilution, cell viability was significantly greater than the control (P < 0.05). Saos-2 cell viability performed using the NR assay at all dilutions revealed no cytotoxic effect of MTA, NEO and TSC/Ta2O5. ALP activity at 1 and 3 days was similar to the control (P > 0.05). TSC/Ta2O5 had significantly greater ALP activity at 7 days when compared with the control (P < 0.05). All materials induced the production of mineralized nodules, and NEO produced significantly more mineralized nodules than MTA and TSC/Ta2O5 (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

Neo MTA Plus and TSC/Ta2O5 were biocompatible and induced ALP activity in Saos-2 cells. Both materials induced mineralized nodule formation by Saos-2 with Neo MTA Plus producing significantly more.

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